Today, December 8th, 2018, PyTorch 1.0 stable has been released. It is a milestone and I’d like to keep notes on PyTorch as I learn and use PyTorch. The resource mainly comes from PyTorch official tutorial and Intro to Deep Learning with PyTorch on Udacity.
Tensors
Simply put, TENSORS
are a generalization of vectors and matrices. In PyTorch, they are a multidimensional matrix containing elements of a single data type.


Resizing the tensor
There are a few options to use: .reshape()
, .resize()
and .view()
.
w.reshape(a, b)
will return a new tensor with the same data asw
with size(a, b)
sometimes, and sometimes a clone, as in it copies the data to another part of memoryw.resize_(a, b)
returns the same tensor with a different shape. However, if the new shape results in fewer elements than the original tensor, some elements will be removed from the tensor (but not from memory). If the new shape results in more elements than the original tensor, new elements will be uninitialized in memory.w.view(a, b)
will return a new tensor with the same data asw
with size(a, b)
The above three methods are introduced in Intro to Deep Learning with PyTorch. PyTorch official tutorial only introduces w.view()
, so generally I’d use w.view()
for resizing.
Convenience of 1
When resizing the tensor, 1
is helpful to determine the only unknown size when we already know the other sizes. It can be inferred from other dimensions.
E.g.,


The size of y is torch.Size([2, 8])
, just as we want.
Inplace operation
An inplace operation is an operation that changes directly the content of a given tensor without making a copy. Inplace operations in PyTorch are always postfixed with a _
, like .add_()
. The .resize_()
mentioned above is also an inplace operation.
NumPy to Torch and back
PyTorch has a great feature for converting between NumPy arrays and Torch tensors. To create a tensor from a NumPy array, use torch.from_numpy()
. To convert a tensor to a NumPy array, use the .numpy()
method.


The memory is shared between the NumPy array and Torch tensor.
sum() method
Setting the dim
keyword dim=0
takes the sum across the rows, i.e., compute the sum of the column vector. Similarly, dim=1
takes the sum across the columns (compute the sum of the row vector).
Neural Network
The general process with PyTorch:
 Make a forward pass through the network
 Use the network output to calculate the loss
 Perform a backward pass through the network with
loss.backward()
to calculate the gradients  Take a step with the optimizer to update the weights
Constructing Neural Networks


It is mandatory to inherit from nn.Module
when creating a class for our network. The name of the class itself can be anything.
PyTorch networks created with nn.Module
must have a forward
method defined. It takes in a tensor x
and passes it through the operations you defined in the __init__
method. And the backward
function (where gradients are computed) is automatically defined for you using autograd
.
Another way is mentioned in the course: nn.Sequential
. (See Doc in detail)


Loss
PyTorch provides losses such as the crossentropy loss (nn.CrossEntropyLoss
). You’ll usually see the loss assigned to criterion
. This criterion combines nn.LogSoftmax()
and nn.NLLLoss()
in one single class.
The input is expected to contain scores for each class.


Autograd
The autograd
package provides automatic differentiation for all operations on Tensors. If the attribute requires_grad
of torch.Tensor
is set as True
, it starts to track all operations on it. When you finished your computation you can call .backward()
and have all the gradients computed automatically. The gradient for this tensor will be accumulated into .grad
attribute.
For more information, refer to autograd tutorial and autograd doc.
Testing and Validating
The most common method to reduce overfitting is dropout, where we randomly drop input units. Adding dropout in PyTorch is straightforward using the nn.Dropout
module.


Turning off gradient descent when tesing or validating can help accelerate the process. Generally we can do the testing in the following mode:


During training we want to use dropout to prevent overfitting, but during inference we want to use the entire network. So, we need to turn off dropout during validation, testing, and whenever we’re using the network to make predictions. To do this, you use model.eval()
. This sets the model to evaluation mode where the dropout probability is 0. You can turn dropout back on by setting the model to train mode with model.train()
.
Convolutional Neural Network
Convolutional Layer
Conv2d Documentation
We typically define a convolutional layer in PyTorch using nn.Conv2d
:


in_channels
number of channels in the input image. For a grayscale image, this depth = 1; for a RGB image, this depth = 3.out_channels
number of channels produced by the convolutionkernel_size
size of the convolutional kernel (most commonly 3 for a 3x3 kernel)stride
stride of the convolution (default: 1, a single number or a tuple)padding
zeropadding added to both sides of the input (default: 0, a number or a tuple)
Pooling Layer


kernel_size
the size of the window to take a max overstride
the stride of the window (default value iskernel_size
)